VoIP phone systems can be configured to have either static or dynamic IPs. When VoIP phones have dynamic IPs, a central server will allocate IPs as the phones connect. When VoIP phones have static IPs, a specific IP will always lead to each phone. There are pros and cons to each strategy.
The Advantages to a Static IP
Static IPs are often more stable. With dynamic IPs, an interruption in service could lead to an interruption the line, as the handset may requisition a new IP and need to connect with that new IP. A static IP phone is always going to be accessible through the same connection. Static IPs make it easier to configure a VoIP system as the IPs never change; that means manual configurations can be added into the network.
Static IPs often work best with VPNs and VoIP applications, as it makes connecting a handset to third-party application easier. Preferred addressing and other manual modifications can ensure that the traffic over the static IP address is prioritized, and consequently will improve upon voice quality and voice reliability.
The Disadvantages to a Static IP
Static IPs need to be manually set. If your company changes technology frequently, then each new handset is going to have to have a new IP requisitioned. This will need to be treated with care, as you're going to want to avoid accidentally assigning any IPs twice. The primary advantage to dynamic IPs is that the handsets are essentially plug-and-play; the system automatically generates the setup information for you, and you don't need to do anything further.
Static IP addresses can pose security risks, as it becomes easier for someone to tell which line is connected to which IP, and consequently potentially attack the system. Static IPs may also cause problems in the future, as many internet devices and mobile devices are expressly designed to use dynamic IP ranges. Though the existing static IP ranges can be avoided for now, as the system grows, it may become prohibitively difficult to maintain both static and dynamic IPs within the same network configuration.
Your VoIP service provider can give you more information on whether your IP phone systems work best with static or dynamic IPs. Most phones are set to dynamic by default, but static can make them more reliable. Static IPs are often used to resolve issues that are occurring with phone signal quality.
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